Covid -19: The Race for a Vaccine

The Race for a Vaccine: Covid-19

The race to save lives is underway. Scientists all over the world are speeding to develop a vaccine for COVID-19, a disease that has claimed more than half a million lives worldwide, and hs sickened millions of others. Vaccine development usually takes 10 to 15 years, and the long, involved process takes a tremendous amount of public and private involvement. At the current rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections that cause COVID-19 disease, though, the world does not have 10 to 15 years to wait.

COVID-19 Race for a vaccine

On July 18, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) reviewed 23 candidate vaccines in clinical evaluation. Many were still in Phase 1 to establish their safety and dosage at the time of the WHO review, while others were in Phase 2 to establish their performance under ideal and controlled performance. As of that mid-July WHO review, three clinical trials had entered Phase 3 for testing on large numbers of people, although one vaccine trial had not yet recruited candidates.

Why Must We Wait So Long?

Most vaccines in development never make it to licensing – in fact, many vaccine candidates never make to clinical evaluation on real humans because they fail to produce the desired immune response in the pre-clinical stages of testing in cell cultures and lab animals.

Regulators set a high bar for vaccination approval and often require years’ worth of safety data because, unlike medicines that treat diseases, vaccines are administered to healthy people to prevent illness. Releasing a vaccine could potentially do more harm than good, so many regulatory bodies set stiff guidelines for approval.

covid-19-race for A CURE

It is not yet clear what data federal regulators would accept as proof that a vaccine is safe and successful in the middle of the pandemic. On June 30, 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) said a vaccine must prevent COVID-19 or decrease the severity of illness in at least 50 percent of people who receive the vaccine. The FDA may consider some vaccine candidates for its Accelerated Approval pathway, but that the vaccine candidate must demonstrate an identifiable immune response or other measure that shows it is reasonably likely that the vaccine would provide clinical benefit. Regulators in other nations have not yet announced what they would consider acceptable criteria for approval, which creates a challenge for vaccine makers trying to gain approval.

More Challenges for Vaccine Makers

Vaccine makers also face challenges determining the best way to trigger the immune response. Vaccines typically work by exposing the body to the antigens of a particular pathogen to activate the immune system without causing disease. Made with weakened or inactivated form of the pathogen, these vaccines are often difficult to develop and produce quickly. Because of the urgent nature of the pandemic, researchers are looking for innovating ways to introduce antigens and otherwise activate an immune response to SARS-CoV-2. Four of the 23 vaccine candidates in clinical testing use an approach that involves engineering messenger RNA (mRNA) that tells human cells how to create the antigens themselves.


Moderna is one of those four companies. On July 15, 2020, the biotech company published data from an early-stage trial that shows its vaccine caused patients to generate an immune response by developing antibodies, although it caused some side effects. Supported by the National Institutes of Health, the study showed volunteers who receive the vaccine produced substantially more neutralizing antibodies than do most patients who have recovered from COVID-19. A second injection administered four weeks after the initial vaccination was necessary to produce a dramatic immune response. Vaccine experts were not impressed, however, concerned that the data was long on text and short on proof.

Other research teams, such as University of Oxford/AstraZeneca are using viral vector vaccines to speed up the process. Viral vector vaccines use a harmless virus as a kind of Trojan horse that carries the pathogen’s genetic material into cells in order to trigger an immune response. The team released more information about its coronavirus vaccine candidate, AZD1222, on July 20, 2020.

Developing a COVID-19 vaccine will be one of the most exciting and important events in human history, with the potential to save millions of lives around the world. Join us next month when we review the next leg of the race for a COVID-19 vaccine.

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Frank Magliochetti owes his professional success to his expertise in two areas: medicine and finance. After obtaining a BS in pharmacy from Northeastern University, he stayed on to enroll in the Masters of Toxicology program. He later specialized in corporate finance, receiving an MBA from The Sawyer School of Business at Suffolk University. His educational background includes completion of the Advanced Management Program at Harvard Business School and the General Management Program at Stanford Business School. Frank Magliochetti has held senior positions at Baxter International, Kontron Instruments, Haemonetics Corporation, and Sandoz. Since 2000, he has been a managing partner at Parcae Capital, where he focuses on financial restructuring and interim management services for companies in the healthcare, media, and alternative energy industries. Last year, he was appointed chairman of the board at Grace Health Technology, a company providing an enterprise solution for the laboratory environment. Most recently; Frank was appointed Chairman and Chief Executive Officer at Designer Genomics International, Inc. The Company has accumulated a growing body of evidence that highlights a link between alterations in the immune and inflammatory systems and the development of chronic human disease. The Company is visionary and has established itself as a leader in the field of inflammatory and immune genetic DNA and RNA biomarkers that play a causative role in debilitating conditions, such as atherosclerosis/heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and cancer.
A proprietary state-of-the art data mining bioinformatics program, called ‘cluster analysis’ will be used to measure disease development susceptibility with potential for earlier diagnosis and intervention. The company is developing a healthcare program based on its proprietary genetic panels that will allow people to be their own healthcare advocate and take an active role in their health status as well as longevity.

Mr. Frank Magliochetti MBA
Managing Partner
Parcae Capital


Innovative Development in Medicine

Innovative Medicine:  Preventative Vaccines:  Bexsero & Trumenba

Frank Magliochetti Report

One of the biggest public health epidemics occurred back in 2014; Ebola and Meningococcal B were responsible. These two diseases took 10,000 people in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia. These three countries have weak health systems, which is the reason why they were unable to treat their people.

In order to fight this disease, which made its first appearance in 1976,  WHO (World Health Organization) had been trying to find a cure for many years. On August 8, 2015, WHO declared that Ebola and Meningococcal B is a disease of international concern and thus began the search for its vaccine. By late October, 2015 WHO had finally come up with two vaccines that were guaranteed to prevent Meningococcal B. Sadly; the cure for Ebola has not yet been found however, its vaccines trials are currently being conducted in Sierra Leone.who_frankmagliochettireport

Meningococcal B is caused by bacteria called “Neisseria Meningitidis”. Neisseria Meningitidis has five serogroups: B, C, Y, W and A. The most common serogroups that affect people in the US is B, C and Y.

Meningococcal B disease is not caught through the air. In fact, it is a diseasewhich is transmitted from one person to another in close physical contact. The disease commonly spreads faster in the family due to the exchange of fluids from daily contact. The disease is found at the back of the throat and later causes sepsis. Sepsis is transferred to the blood that infects the blood stream, which causes damage to the brain and spinal column. Meningococcal B often results in liver failure, vision loss, amputation of limbs and death.

bexsero-frankmagliochettireportThe two vaccines Bexsero and Trumenba specifically treat Meningococcal B and were approved by the FDA in October 2015. The trials for Bexsero were conducted in UK, Chile, Australia and Canada amongst 2,600 young adults and adolescents. The results were that the three infectious strains that cause Meningococcal were destroyed.

Another 5,000 participants in the trials conducted in the USA experienced headache, muscle and joint pain, chills, fatigue and diarrhea after receiving the vaccine. Whereas, 15,000 participants experienced less side effects. All in all, the FDA approved the vaccines because the side effects were not viewed aslong term or fatal.

An accelerated approval was used by the FDA to make this vaccine go public claiming that Meningococcal B is a life-threatening disease. The effectiveness of Bexsero was approved two months prior to the trials being conducted.

FDA recommends that the vaccine should be given to infants, children from the ages of ten till twenty three and people who have a weak immune system. It is recommended that more than one dosage should be given to people having serogroup B Meningococcal.

Anna Jaques, a non-profit Hospital in Newburyport, Massachusetts has taken extra measures and brought more doctors and experts on anna_jaques_hospitaltheir team to prepare themselves if a patient with Ebola or Meningococcal B comes to their door.

Anna Jaques is a remarkable medical facility housed with some of the top health care professionals North of Boston.

Frank Magliochetti

With 2016 being the year of medical innovations, the vaccine for Meningococcal B has come as a godsend that will save millions of lives in rural areas where this disease is commonly found. The vaccines are set to be released worldwide by the end of the year.

Other News and information on Trumenba and Bexsero

Trumenba Offical Website:

Important Safety Information

  • Trumenba should not be given to anyone with a history of a severe allergic reaction after a previous dose of Trumenba
  • Individuals with weakened immune systems may have a reduced immune response
  • The most common adverse reactions were pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, muscle pain, and chills
  • Data is not available on the safety and effectiveness of using Trumenba and other meningococcal group B vaccines interchangeably to complete the vaccination series
  • Tell your healthcare provider prior to the vaccination if you are pregnant, or plan to become pregnant
  • Ask your healthcare provider about the risks and benefits of Trumenba. Only a healthcare provider can decide if Trumenba is right for you or your child



  • Trumenba is a vaccine indicated for individuals 10 through 25 years of age for active immunization to prevent invasive disease caused by Neisseria meningitidisgroup B
  • Trumenba is approved based upon demonstrated immune response against four group B strains representative of prevalent strains in the US. The effectiveness of Trumenba against diverse group B strains has not been confirmed


Official Site

Important Safety Information


BEXSERO is a vaccine indicated for active immunization to prevent invasive disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. BEXSERO is approved for use in individuals 10 through 25 years of age.

Approval of BEXSERO is based on demonstration of immune response, as measured by serum bactericidal activity against three serogroup B strains representative of prevalent strains in the United States. The effectiveness of BEXSERO against diverse serogroup B strains has not been confirmed.Bexsero_logo_4C_temp_norDNA_bigger

  • BEXSERO is contraindicated in cases of hypersensitivity, including severe allergic reaction, to any component of the vaccine, or after a previous dose of BEXSERO
  • Appropriate observation and medical treatment should always be readily available in case of an anaphylactic event following the administration of the vaccine
  • The tip caps of the prefilled syringes contain natural rubber latex, which may cause allergic reactions in latex-sensitive individuals
  • Syncope (fainting) can occur in association with administration of BEXSERO. Ensure procedures are in place to avoid injury from falling associated with syncope
  • The most common solicited adverse reactions observed in clinical trials were pain at the injection site (≥83%), myalgia (≥48%), erythema (≥45%), fatigue (≥35%), headache (≥33%), induration (≥28%), nausea (≥18%), and arthralgia (≥13%)
  • Vaccination with BEXSERO may not provide protection against all meningococcal serogroup B strains
  • Vaccination with BEXSERO may not result in protection in all vaccine recipients

AAP issues meningococcal B vaccine ( Trumenba & Bexsero)  guidelines for adolescents
Trumenba and Bexsero have both been approved for the prevention of serogroup B meningococcal disease in individuals aged 10 through 25 years by the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases.

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Pfizer heads back to school with Trumenba vaccination campaign

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Teaching kids to share is usually a parental goal, but a new ad from Pfizer may have some parents rethinking the parameters.

The first campaign for meningococcal group B vaccine Trumenba highlights the dangers of MenB, which can be spread through habits common among teens–including kissing and sharing drinks and food.

The TV ad shows a mother in the hospital with her stricken son, asking “how did we get here?” The ad then goes back through events earlier in evening showing the son sharing food and drinks with several different friends at a party and kissing a girl.

“The campaign was designed to reach parents of teens and young adults during the summer and back-to-school season, when many parents are thinking about steps they can take to help protect their child’s health, including vaccination,” she said.

Trumenba is one of two vaccinations to protect against MenB, along with GlaxoSmithKline’s Bexsero. But last year, the CDC’s Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices (ACIP) stopped short of granting the pair universal recommendation. The vaccines are recommended for young adults ages 16 to 23, with a preferred age of 16 to 18, which means that doctors decide on an individual basis whether to vaccinate their patients against MenB.

watch the ad on

Frank Magliochetti is Managing Partner for Parcae Capital.

  • North Andover, Massachusetts

This column of posts is directed at the Healthcare Industry.  Frank plans to release a new site dedicated to the industry.  He currently assists companies who are building, restructuring, transforming and resurrecting there business’s. An example of his client base are, Xenetic Biosciences , IPC Medical Corp, Just Fellowship Corp, Environmental Services Inc., Parsons Post House LLC, ClickStream Corporation as well as having a business talk radio show; The Business Architect on the URBN network.